achamila Press : Dr.mohammed AlRefaei Minister of Health

The number of people living with diabetes increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. The prevalence of diabetes in low- and middle-income countries is increasing faster than in high-income countries. Diabetes is one of the leading causes of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, strokes and lower limb amputations. The premature death rate from diabetes increased by 5% between 2000 and 2016. In 2019, diabetes was a direct cause of nearly 1.5 million deaths. . In 2012, high blood glucose caused an additional 2.2 million deaths. Eating a healthy diet, getting regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight, and avoiding tobacco use are all ways to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can be treated and its consequences avoided or delayed with a healthy diet, physical activity, prescribed medication, regular check-ups and treatment of complications.

Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that controls the level of sugar in the blood. Hyperglycemia, also known as high blood sugar level, is a common result of an imbalance in blood sugar control, and over time leads to serious damage to many body systems, especially nerves and blood vessels.

In 2014, people with diabetes represented 8.5% of all adults aged 18 years and over. In 2019, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.6 million deaths. However, to provide a more accurate picture of deaths due to diabetes, it is necessary to add deaths from higher than optimal blood glucose levels in those who have had cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and tuberculosis. In 2012 (the year of the most recent data available), an additional 2.2 million people died of high blood glucose.

The rate of premature deaths from diabetes increased by 5% between 2000 and 2016. The premature mortality rate due to diabetes in high-income countries declined between 2000 and 2010 but then increased between 2010 and 2016. The rate of premature deaths due to diabetes increased in lower middle-income countries in both periods.

In contrast, the risk of dying from any of the four major noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease or diabetes) between the ages of 30 and 70 decreased by 18% globally between 2000 and 2016.

type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes (previously called non-insulin dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes) is caused by the body not using insulin effectively. Most patients with diabetes suffer from type 2 diabetes. This type is often caused by excessive body weight and inactivity.

Symptoms of this type may be the same as those of type 1, but they are less often present. Therefore, the disease may be diagnosed several years after the onset of symptoms, that is, after the onset of complications of the disease.

Until recently, this type of diabetes was only observed in adults, but it is now increasingly occurring in children as well.

type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes or childhood or adolescence-onset diabetes) is characterized by a lack of insulin production and requires daily insulin intake. The factors that cause type 1 diabetes and how to prevent it are not known.

Symptoms of this disease include excessive urination, thirst, persistent hunger, weight loss, blurred vision and fatigue. These symptoms may appear suddenly.

Pregnancy diabetes

Gestational diabetes is hyperglycemia in which blood glucose values ​​are above normal but do not reach the level needed to diagnose diabetes. This pattern occurs during pregnancy.

Women with gestational diabetes are more likely to develop complications during pregnancy and at childbirth. These women are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes in the future, and possibly even their children.

Gestational diabetes is diagnosed by prenatal screening, not by reported symptoms.

Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting blood sugar

Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting blood sugar are intermediate states in the transition from normal to diabetes. People with either of these conditions are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although it is not inevitable.

Diabetes effects on health

Over time, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves.

Adults with diabetes are two to three times more likely to have heart attacks and strokes (1). Poor blood flow and neuropathy (nerve damage) in the feet increase the risk of developing foot ulcers and putrefaction, which may eventually require amputation. Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and it occurs as a result of the long-term accumulation of damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. And 2.6% of blindness cases in the world are attributed to diabetes (2). Diabetes is one of the main causes of kidney failure (3). Ways to prevent

Simple lifestyle measures have been shown to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. To help prevent type 2 diabetes and its complications, people should:

Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight Do physical activity – that is, at least 30 minutes of physical activityAchieving and maintaining a healthy weight Physical activity – at least 30 minutes of moderate, regular physical activity most days of the week. Weight control requires more physical activity Eating a healthy diet while limiting sugars and saturated fats Avoiding tobacco use, as smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Diabetes can be diagnosed in its early stages with a relatively inexpensive blood test.

Diabetes treatment requires a healthy diet, physical activity, and low blood glucose and other known risk factors that damage blood vessels. Quitting smoking is also important to avoid complications.

Interventions that are cost-effective and feasible in low- and middle-income countries include:

Regulating the level of glucose in the blood, especially in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin; While people with type 2 diabetes can be treated with oral medication, they may also need insulin; control blood pressure; foot care (self-care of the patient by keeping the feet clean; wearing appropriate shoes; and seeking professional care for the treatment of foot ulcers). and regular examination of the feet by health professionals).

Other cost-saving interventions include:

Screening for diabetic retinopathy (which causes blindness) and its treatment; Regulating blood lipids (to regulate cholesterol levels); Detecting early signs of diabetes-related kidney disease WHO response

WHO aims to encourage and support the adoption of effective measures for the surveillance, prevention and control of diabetes mellitus and its complications, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To achieve this, the organization does the following:

Develop scientific guidelines for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases, including diabetes mellitus; Establish norms and standards for the diagnosis and care of diabetes mellitus; Raise awareness of the global diabetes epidemic; Celebrating World Diabetes Day (14 November); Conducting surveillance for diabetes and its risk factors.

The WHO Global Report on Diabetes provides an overview of the burden of diabetes, available interventions to prevent and manage diabetes, and recommendations for governments, individuals, civil society and the private sector.

WHO’s “Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health” complements WHO’s work in the field of diabetes by focusing on comprehensive approaches targeting the whole population, in order to promote a healthy diet and regular physical activity, thereby reducing hyperactivity Overweight and obesity are a growing global problem.

The WHO Unit for Diagnosis and Management of Type 2 Diabetes compiles guidance on the diagnosis, classification and management of type 2 diabetes into a single document. This module will be useful to both policy makers who develop service delivery plans for diabetes care, national program managers responsible for providing training, planning and monitoring services, facility managers and primary care personnel who carry out clinical care tasks and monitoring, and will also be useful in determining the outcomes of diabetes care.

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