The philosophy of human rights Philosophy Of Human Rights

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 Thinking contrary to reality or thinking contrary to reality

 Counterfactual Thibking “”

 A psychological concept that involves a person’s tendency to think of possible alternatives to life events.

 – Merriam Best Dictionary defines the term “contrary to reality” as “when someone amends facts that have occurred and evaluates the consequences of that change as results contrary to the premises”

 Misconceptions that contradict reality may produce “some beneficial effects, but they create more negative results”

 The German philosopher Leibniz pointed out that “there are infinite sustenance of alternative worlds as long as their existence does not contradict the laws of logic”

 Philosopher Nicholas Richer and others referred to “the relationship between anti-factual inference based on conditional logic”

  – Ruth MJ in 2005 in Rational Imagination noted “Cognitive Processes and Irrational Thinking”

 – Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky (1982) demonstrated the human tendency to think contrary

 – In the nineties of the twentieth century some began to point out that “dissenting thinking has positives despite the negative aspects,” pointing to:

    The activating aspect and the ambiguity of alternatives

 The Myers-Levy and Maheswaran study indicated that “the positive outcomes of negative thinking are amplified”

  The biting came back to indicate that “dissenting thinking will lead to avoiding undesirable results in the future”

 Some return to pointing out that “the bias in hindsight may cause memory disturbances”

 – “Critical Thinking”

  – Objective analysis of the facts to formulate a judgment

 A rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, a directed, organized, self-following, and self-correcting process as a commitment to facts and away from innate selfishness and social conventions as “the ability to verify assumptions”

 Thinking is the highest form of thinking. It comes at the top of Bloom’s pyramid

 The first attempts in critical thinking were for “Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates by pointing out that the truth cannot be reached by relying on those in power”

 Richard W Paul 1994 describes critical thinking as a “two-wave movement – clear critical analysis, rational reasoning based on criticism, and clear rational judgment making”

  – Kerry Walters in his article entitled “Logicism in Critical Thinking” pointed out that “the legitimacy of critical thinking is valid if non-formal logic is used – to a lesser extent, formal logic”

 – Edward. M . Edward M Gkaser . Glacier

 He suggested three elements for critical thinking: 1- The ability to think consciously 2- Knowledge of logical questioning methods 3- Knowledge of some skills in applying those curricula

 Contemporary cognitive psychology considers “human thinking as a complex, contemplative and interactive process”

 John Dewey was one of the educational leaders in the field of skill building

 – Evidence-based thinking has become important in academia, in the process of education and internalization, and in building basic ideas, principles and theories in application education

 – Experimental research studies of 341 empirical studies in which standard references were used to measure critical thinking and evaluate its returns. They emphasized the importance and necessity of critical thinking

 – Scott Lilienfeld points out “the importance of teaching critical thinking to children at an early age and in orbit” – Scott Lilienfeld points out “the importance of teaching critical thinking to children at an early age and in schools and academies”

  It comes through

 1A collection of a series of studies and research related to the subject of the study

 ‘2Review of dissenting opinions related to the topic’

 3Discussing different opinions that are correct and incorrect

 4Distinguishing the strengths and weaknesses of each opinion

 5Evaluate opinions objectively and without prejudice

 6Demonstrating and presenting arguments for the validity of an opinion

   7Refer to more information if necessary

  8Accuracy in noticing facts and events

   9objective evaluation of topics and issues objectively

   10Stay away from self-motivation

   11Scientific criticism and not jump to conclusions

   12Adhering to the compensatory meanings that are far from the thoughts

  – 13Stay away from extreme views

 Thinking that is different or contrary to the prevailing reality in many worlds leads us to the study of inhuman thinking

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